名前：It is called a “snow sculpture” in English.
種類：It is a kind of fish.
類似：It is something like a large egg.
用途：It is used for calculations. （calculations：計算）
容器：It comes in a paper bag. （紙袋に入っている）
材料：It is made of paper.
五味：It is sweet/ salty/ sour/ bitter/ hot.
五感：It looks good. It sounds good. It smells good. It tastes good. It feels good.
形：It looks like an egg shaped.
It is 3/4/5/… cornered. （３／４／５／．．．角形．）
重量：It is 100 kg.
長さ・深さ：It is 30 cm long/ deep.
色：It is white.
中間色：It is pinkish white.
A: What time do you get up?
B: I usually get up at six.
A: What do you do after school?
B: I go to juku three days a week.
A: What do you usually do every Sunday?
B: I play baseball with my friends.
A: How much is it? (How much does it cost?)
B: It is 200 yen.
A: How do you say ringo in English?
B: You say Apples in English.
A: How do you spell your name?
A: How did you know that?
B: I learned it in class. (My teacher taught me it./ I read it in the book./ The book says that./ The newspaper says it.)
A: How many bags do you have?
B: I have three bags.
A: You are going to be late for school again.
B: Yes, it looks like I’m going to be late for school.
A: What will the weather be like tomorrow?
B: The weather forecast said/says that we are going have snow tomorrow.
(It looks like we are going to have snow)
A: How will the weather be like tomorrow?
(What kind of weather will we have tomorrow?)
B: It will rain tomorrow.
A: I don’t have enough time for breakfast.
B: You have to eat something before you leave.
A: May I have corn flakes for breakfast?
B: Yes, you may.
A: May I go to Nami’s house?
Mom: Yes. Please eat your breakfast first.
許可：May I use your pen?
Do you mind if I sit here?
Do you mind me sitting next to you?
依頼：Will you please close the door?
Would you please …?
Could you please …?
Would you …?
Could you …?
I would appreciate it if you could ….
丁寧な要望：I would like to (move to Sapporo).
勧誘：Would you like to (have another cup of coffee)?
How would you like to have…?
○Things are good
○Things are bad.
○Things are getting better.
○Things are getting worse.
○I have to clear the snow away because we have a lot of snow on the ground.
○That’s why I had to go there all the way there.（それでわざわざそこまで行かなければならなかった．）
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Bee, H. (2000). The developing child, ninth edition. Boston, MA: Ally and Bacon.
Blackemore, D. 1992. Understanding Utterances. Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
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Kobayashi, T. (2001). Nymon goyoron kenkyu (Introduction to pragmatics). Tokyo: Kenkyusha.
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The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. 2001. Practical Handbook for Elementary School English Activities.
Neichi, G. T. (1965). “Prefabricated Cognitive Approach.” In Note l-20. MS. Sapporo.
Sato, M. (2001). Karikyuramukenkyu to kyoshikenkyu [Curriculum studies and teacher education studies]. In T. Abiko (Ed.), Shinpan karikyuramukenkyu nyumon [New introduction to curriculum] (157-180). Tokyo: Keiso Shobo.
Schon, D. (1986). The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York: Basic Books.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1986). Thought and language (trans. A. Kozulin). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.